Proctology Articles

Patient information on the risks associated to proctological disorders. The latest proctology news, new diagnosis and treatment methods.

Stapled Mechanical Haemorrhoidectomy

Haemorrhoid treatments are classified into two groups. They may be treated using non-surgical or traditional methods and by surgical procedures. The physician decides on the specific treatment suitable for each patient, depending on the severity of the case. In severe cases, surgery is required. One of the surgical haemorrhoid resection methods is stapled mechanical haemorrhoidectomy. Some people might not be familiar with this procedure because of its various names. It is also known as PPH or the Procedure for Prolapse and Haemorrhoids. Other health specialists use the name of stapled haemorrhoidopexy or circumferential mucosectomy.
The method uses a circular stapling device to excise the excess tissue from the prolapsed anal mucous membrane. This device pulls the prolapsed tissue to allow the excess tissue to be removed while the remaining haemorrhoidal tissue is stapled. This restores the haemorrhoidal tissue back to its original anatomical position.

IR Haemorrhoid Coagulation

IR Haemorrhoid Coagulation (also referred to as coagulation therapy) is a medical procedure used to treat small- and medium-sized haemorrhoids. During the procedure, the doctor uses a device that generates an IR beam.
The heat generated by the IR beam causes the tissue to scar, which helps stop the blood flow towards the haemorrhoid. The haemorrhoid disappears, and the scar formed on the anal canal prevents the swelling of the anal canal vessels. Only one haemorrhoid can be treated per session. The other haemorrhoids may be treated after 10-14 days.

Haemorrhoid Diagnosis

Because haemorrhoid symptoms are similar to those of an anal fissure, a fistula or an anal abscess, it is very important that the diagnosis be set by a proctologist. However, most people treat haemorrhoids with OTC medication and without previously discussing the matter with the physician. Rectal bleeding, regardless of their cause, must be investigated by a physician. In order to diagnose haemorrhoids, the physician must check the anal area. The physician may also perform a digital rectal exam (DRE) using a sterile glove and lubricant. This exam might be unpleasant if the patient suffers from external haemorrhoids, but it is, however, useful to set a correct diagnosis.
In some cases, more detailed examination might impose the use of an anoscope. The anoscope is a cylindrical medical instrument, equipped with an optical system, which helps view internal haemorrhoids when placed inside the rectum.

Haemorrhoid Symptoms

Haemorrhoid symptoms may vary from one person to another, but there are a series of general symptoms that may be associated to this type of disease. Depending on the severity of the disease, haemorrhoids may be classified into four main categories, each with its own symptomatology:
1st Degree Haemorrhoids – they are generally associated to the presence of bleeding and pain, but they are not prolapsed.
2nd degree haemorrhoids – these haemorrhoids are prolapsed and may withdraw on their own (may be reducible), with or without bleeding.
The two categories above are regarded as less severe cases and allow for the use of non-invasive treatment methods in our clinics.
3rd degree haemorrhoids are prolapsed and they do not withdraw on their own, but, instead, need to be manually forced back into the anal canal, either by the patient or by the doctor.

Causes of Haemorrhoids

What is the cause of haemorrhoids? What Causes Haemorrhoids? The main trigger of haemorrhoids is the pressure exerted on the veins located in the pelvic and rectal area. This pressure occurs as a consequence of several factors: constipation, diarrhea, sitting or standing for long periods of time, obesity, pregnancy or hereditary factors. Below are the details of each specific cause and the possible solutions.
One of the main causes of haemorrhoids is a a wrong position on the toilet sit. In order to make sure you adopt the right position, follow these steps: sit as you normally would on your toilet, lift your soles so that you rest on your tips and bend forwards to rest your elbows on your knees. This position helps avoid straining upon the elimination of the stool and implicitly decreases the chances of haemorrhoid protrusion or relapse.
Constipation is another frequent haemorrhoid cause. Straining during stool elimination generates a high pressure on the rectal area veins and causes them to swell (such as it is the case with varicose veins). In order to avoid constipation problems, try to control stool elimination. Breathing exercises also are very useful to facilitate stool elimination.